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Unveiling the nanotoxicological aspects of Se nanomaterials differing in size and morphology

Year: 2023
Products: UP213;New Wave;New Wave Research;
Authors: Stepankova, H;Michalkova, H;Splichal, Z;Richtera, L;Svec, P;Vaculovic, T;Pribyl, J;Kormunda, M;Rex, S;Adam, V;Heger, Z;
Journal: Bioactive Materials

Although the general concept of nanotechnology relies on exploitation of size-dependent properties of nanoscaled materials, the relation between the size/morphology of nanoparticles with their biological activity remains not well understood. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the biological activity of Se nanoparticles, one of the most promising candidates of nanomaterials for biomedicine, possessing the same crystal structure, but differing in morphology (nanorods vs. spherical particles) and aspect ratios (AR, 11.5 vs. 22.3 vs. 1.0) in human cells and BALB/c mice. Herein, we report that in case of nanorod-shaped Se nanomaterials, AR is a critical factor describing their cytotoxicity and biocompatibility. However, spherical nanoparticles (AR 1.0) do not fit this statement and exhibit markedly higher cytotoxicity than lower-AR Se nanorods. Beside of cytotoxicity, we also show that morphology and size substantially affect the uptake and intracellular fate of Se nanomaterials. In line with in vitro data, in vivo i.v. administration of Se nanomaterials revealed the highest toxicity for higher-AR nanorods followed by spherical nanoparticles and lower-AR nanorods. Moreover, we revealed that Se nanomaterials are able to alter intracellular redox homeostasis, and affect the acidic intracellular vesicles and cytoskeletal architecture in a size- and morphology-dependent manner. Although the tested nanoparticles were produced from the similar sources, their behavior differs markedly, since each type is promising for several various application scenarios, and the presented testing protocol could serve as a concept standardizing the biological relevance of the size and morphology of the various types of nanomaterials and nanoparticles.

A 187Re-187Os, 87Rb-86Sr, highly siderophile and incompatible trace element study of some carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrite meteorites

Year: 2022
Products: UP213;New Wave;
Authors: Phelan, N;Day, J;Dhaliwal, J;Liu, Y;Corder, C;Strom, C;Pringle, E;Assayag, N;Cartigny, P;Marti, K;Moynier, F;
Journal: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

New 187Re-187Os, 87Rb-87Sr, triple O-isotope isotope, bulk rock highly siderophile- (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re), major- and trace-element abundance data are reported for a variety of carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrite meteorites. In addition, new mineral chemical data are reported for the Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fall for comparison with existing chondrite data and to investigate element sequestration into metal and mineral phases within some chondrites. The focus of the study is to link the variations observed in the HSE abundances and Re-Os isotopes with other isotopic and elemental data to explore the relative roles of sample sizes, terrestrial alteration and parent body processes more fully on chondrite meteorite compositions. Trace element variations in Chelyabinsk silicate, oxide and metal grains highlight the importance of geochemical heterogeneity imparted by mineralogical variations and mode effects, as well as sample size. Using a range of sample powder aliquot sizes, it is possible to show that this becomes significant for the HSE at

Nd-Hf isotopic composition of the Paleoproterozoic Matupá and Teles Pires intrusive suites: Implications for crustal evolution of the southern Amazonian Craton (Brazil)

Year: 2022
Products: UP213;New Wave;
Authors: Tarelow Neto, J;Moura, M;
Journal: Journal of South American Earth Sciences

This paper presents Nd-Hf isotopic data for granitic rocks of both the Matupá (∼1859-1881 Ma) and Teles Pires (∼1790-1793 Ma) intrusive suites located in the south-central region of the Amazonian Craton, central Brazil. The Matupá Intrusive Suite consists of two facies of I-type granites with calc-alkaline affinity emplaced in volcanic arc settings. Facies 1 is composed of syenogranite and monzogranite, and facies 2 is composed of granodiorite. The Teles Pires Intrusive Suite varies from syenogranite to monzogranite with calc-alkaline signature that is consistent with mature magmatic arc settings. The Matupá Intrusive Suite derives from a source with Hf model ages ranging between 2.4-1.91 Ga and εHf (t) between +5.71 and −5.50. Zircon grains in the Matupá Intrusive Suite that are correlatable with the Creporizão Intrusive Suite show Hf model ages of between 2.0 to 2.4, and εHf (t) of −3.76 to + 4.10, while the zircon grains correlatable with the Tropas Intrusive Suite show Hf model ages of 2.1 to 2.4 Ga and εHf(t) of −3.93 to + 2.50. Both facies of the Matupá Intrusive Suite provide εNd (t) values varying from −0.61 to −1.66. The wide range of εHf (t) values (from −5.50 to +5.71) in contrast to the uniformly negative εNd (t) values (from −1.66 to −0.61) of the Matupá Intrusive Suite suggest that Nd-Hf decoupling took place in the magma source during to magma mixing processes. Nd-Hf isotope analyses of the Teles Pires Intrusive Suite reveal a source with Hf model age of between 2.3 and 1.9 Ga. This is indicative of mantle contribution and crustal reworking with values of εHf (t) ranging from +7.17 to −3.3, while other values suggest a more crustal contribution with εNd (t) from −0.07 to −0.71. Crustal contribution in the genesis and magmatic evolution of the Teles Pires Intrusive Suite is also evidenced due to the presence zircon grains inherited from Matupá Intrusive Suite. Zircon inheritance record a distant parental source coeval with the Matupá Intrusive Suite. This paper proposes that the origin and evolution of the Matupá Intrusive Suite is linked to the Cuiú-Cuiú Magmatic Arc while the origin and evolution of the Teles Pires Intrusive Suite is linked to the Juruena Magmatic Arc. Another hypothesis is that both suites were generated and evolved from a single magmatic arc. The Juruena Magmatic Arc is divided into two geographic segments. An eastern segment with a magmatic evolution marked by the interaction of crustal components during the orogenic phase of the Cuiú-Cuiú Magmatic Arc (Tapajós Domain of the Tapajós-Parimá Tectonic Province), and a western segment whose magmatic evolution is marked by rebound of the Juruena Magmatic Arc.

The solubility of platinum in magmatic brines: Insights into the mobility of PGE in ore-forming environments

Year: 2022
Products: NWR193;
Authors: Sullivan, N;Zajacz, Z;Brenan, J;Tsay, A;
Journal: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

Several field-based studies have proposed that late-stage magmatic aqueous brines may be responsible for the transportation and redistribution of platinum-group elements (PGE) in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems. We experimentally studied the solubility of Pt in high-temperature aqueous brines as a function of oxygen fugacity (ƒO2), temperature (T), pH and total chloride concentration (Cltotal) in a S-free system. Experiments were conducted at 800-1000 °C and 200 MPa in an externally-heated rapid-quench Molybdenum-Hafnium Carbide (MHC) pressure vessel assembly. We employed the synthetic fluid inclusion (SFI) technique to trap and sample pre-equilibrated, high-salinity brines in quartz cylinders subjected to in situ fracturing during experimental run conditions. Platinum solubility was observed to have a positive correlation with ƒO2, temperature, fluid acidity and Cltotal (salinity). A log Pt versus log ƒO2 diagram derives a weighted-error linear regression slope (m) = 0.48 ± 0.04 which demonstrates that Pt is present in the 2+ oxidation state over the studied ƒO2 range. At relatively oxidizing conditions, 1.44 log units above the Ni-NiO oxygen buffer (NNO+1.44), aqueous brines (containing 63 NaCl eq. wt.%) with a mildly acidic fluid composition (pH = 6.03) can dissolve up to ∼100 µg/g Pt at 900 °C and 200 MPa. Aqueous brines with identical fluid compositions yield a solubility of 4-13 µg/g Pt under more reducing conditions (NNO-0.41 to NNO-1.42). Thermodynamic model calculations suggest that both PtCl2 and PtCl3− are the dominant Pt(II)-chloride complexes which facilitate the transport of Pt in high-temperature aqueous vapors and brines. In fluid compositions with Cltotal >32 m (mol/kg H2O), PtCl3− complex is expected to be the dominant Pt species. In natural mafic-ultramafic systems, high-salinity, orthomagmatic aqueous brines may be important transporting agents if such magmatic fluids can participate in the dissolution of Pt-enriched base-metal sulfides or react with discrete insoluble Pt phases imposing a relatively high activity of Pt (i.e., Pt3Fe). Furthermore, precipitation of Pt from aqueous brines is promoted by a decrease in ƒO2, temperature, acidity and Cltotal.

Cr-pyrope xenocrysts with oxide mineral inclusions from the Chompolo lamprophyres (Aldan shield): Insights into mantle processes beneath the southeastern Siberian craton

Year: 2022
Products: NWR213;ESI;
Authors: Rezvukhin, D;Nikolenko, E;Sharygin, I;Rezvukhina, O;Chervyakovskaya, M;Korsakov, A;
Journal: Mineralogical Magazine

Pyrope xenocrysts (N = 52) with associated inclusions of Ti- and/or Cr-rich oxide minerals from the Aldanskaya dyke and Ogonek diatreme (Chompolo field, southeastern Siberian craton) have been investigated. The majority of xenocrysts are of lherzolitic paragenesis and have concave-upwards (normal) rare earth element (REEN) patterns that increase in concentration from light REE to medium-heavy REE (Group 1). Four Ca-rich (5.7-7.4 wt.% CaO) pyropes are extremely low in Ti, Na and Y and have sinusoidal REEN spectra, thus exhibiting distinct geochemical signatures (Group 2). A peculiar xenocryst, s165, is the only sample to show harzburgitic derivation, whilst demonstrating a normal-to-weakly sinusoidal REEN pattern and the highest Zr (93 ppm) and Sc (471 ppm). Chromite-magnesiochromite, rutile, Mg-ilmenite and crichtonite-group minerals comprise a suite of oxide mineral inclusions in the pyrope xenocrysts. These minerals are characteristically enriched in Cr with 0.6-7.2 wt.% Cr2O3 in rutile, 0.7-3.6 wt.% in Mg-ilmenite and 7.1-18.0 wt.% in the crichtonite-group minerals. Complex titanates of the crichtonite group enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) are high in Al2O3 (0.9-2.2 wt.%), ZrO2 (1.5-5.4 wt.%) and display a trend of compositions from the Ca-Sr-specific varieties to the Ba-dominant species (e.g. lindsleyite). In the pyrope xenocrysts the oxides coexist with silicates (clino- and orthopyroxene and olivine), hydrous silicates (talc, phlogopite and amphibole), carbonate (magnesite), sulfides (pentlandite, chalcopyrite, breakdown products of monosulfide and bornite solid solutions), apatite and graphite. P-T estimates imply the inclusion-bearing pyrope xenocrysts have been derived from low-temperature peridotite assemblages that resided at temperatures of ~600-800°C and a pressure range of ~25-35 kbar in the graphite stability field. Pyrope genesis is linked to the metasomatic enrichment of peridotite protoliths by Ca-Zr-LILE-bearing percolating fluid-melt phases containing significant volatile components. These metasomatic agents are probably volatile-rich melts or supercritical C-O-H-S fluids that were released from a Palaeo-subduction slab.

Magmatic-hydrothermal tin deposits form in response to efficient tin extraction upon magma degassing

Year: 2022
Products: NWR193;
Authors: Zhao, P;Zajacz, Z;Tsay, A;Yuan, S;
Journal: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

Most of the global Sn resources are from granite-related ore deposits, which form in response to cassiterite precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. However, the physical and chemical controls on the efficiency of Sn extraction from upper crustal plutons by exsolving magmatic fluids are still unclear. In this study, we determine the partition coefficient of Sn between aqueous fluids and granitic melts () at 800 °C, 150 MPa and the fO2 of the Ni-NiO buffer. To obtain equilibrium partition coefficients, a new experimental method has been used relying on local equilibrium between silicate melt and microscopic-sized fluid bubbles. The latter formed synthetic fluid inclusions in the quenched glasses, which in turn were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry along with the enclosing glass. The results show that at constant aluminum saturation index (ASI = 1.05-1.08) of the silicate melt, increases from 1.9 to 35.0 as the total Cl concentration () in fluid increases from 1.0 to 16.6 mol/kg H2O. At a fixed = 2 mol/kg H2O, increases from 4.3 to 10.6 as the HCl concentration in the solution increases from 0.15 to 0.79 mol/kg H2O, which in turn is a function of the ASI of the melt (ASI = 1.06-1.29). Numerical modeling suggests that Sn is extracted by magmatic fluids from upper crustal plutons most efficiently at the late stage of crystallization and degassing. At a similar degree of crystallization, granitic magma with lower initial water concentration and higher ASI will separate a fluid phase with higher Sn concentration and thus has higher Sn mineralization potential. Due to the relatively high value, fluids exsolved from highly evolved magmas can sequester enough Sn to form Sn deposits and the sub-solidus remobilization of Sn from granite bodies is not a pre-requisite for ore genesis.

What is the relationship between hypoxia, water chemistry, and otolith manganese content?

Year: 2022
Products: NWR213;ESI;
Authors: Jiang, S;Hong, P;Katayama, S;
Journal: Journal of fish biology

Previous studies have shown an increase in otolith Mn caused by exposure to hypoxic water masses. The mechanism leading to the increases in otolith Mn is still unclear, but might possibly be due to the larger amount of available Mn left in the water column under hypoxia. Thus, this study aimed to examine the relationship between hypoxia, water Mn, and otolith Mn through marbled flounder (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, Günther) captured from Tokyo Bay and reared under different water Mn at laboratory. Otoliths from the Bay showed a higher [Mn/Ca]otolith than outside, together with a seasonal trend of high [Mn/Ca]otolith at the start of translucent zones (which form in the summer), supporting the occurrence of summer hypoxia in Tokyo Bay. However, juveniles reared under Control (Mn 0.50 μmol/L), Middle (Mn 6.94 μmol/L) and High (Mn 10.4 μmol/L) treatments of water Mn concentrations showed a disproportional smaller increase in [Mn/Ca]otolith . Comparing the laboratory experiment with the field data, [Mn/Ca]water under hypoxia in Tokyo Bay could reach a low level similar to Control treatment, yet [Mn/Ca]otolith of the Bay showed a higher value than the High treatment. These results revealed an elevated [Mn/Ca]otolith toward hypoxia, but also suggested that changes in water Mn might not be directly recorded by otolith Mn. This article is protected by

The solubility of gold and palladium in magmatic brines: Implications for PGE enrichment in mafic-ultramafic and porphyry environments

Year: 2022
Products: NWR193;
Authors: Sullivan, N;Zajacz, Z;Brenan, J;Hinde, J;Tsay, A;Yin, Y;
Journal: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

We performed experiments to determine the solubility of Au and Pd in magmatic aqueous fluids as a function of oxygen fugacity (ƒO2), temperature (T), pH and total chloride concentration (Cltotal). Experiments were conducted at 800-1000 °C and 200 MPa in an externally-heated rapid-quench Molybdenum-Hafnium Carbide (MHC) cold-seal pressure vessel assembly. We employed a synthetic fluid inclusion (SFI) technique to entrap equilibrated, hydrothermal fluids in response to in situ fracturing of quartz cylinders at experimental run conditions. The solubility of Au and Pd both have positive relationships with ƒO2, temperature, acidity and chlorinity. Concentrated aqueous brines containing 63 wt.% NaCl can dissolve wt.% levels of Au (∼1.2 wt.%) and Pd (∼1.7 wt.%) at metal saturation in relatively oxidized conditions, 1.44 log units above the Ni-NiO oxygen buffer (NNO+1.44), and mildly acidic pH at 900 °C and 200 MPa. Thermodynamic modeling of experimental results suggests that Au is mainly transported as AuCl(aq) at high pH and low Cltotal conditions, whereas HAuCl2(aq) and potentially AuCl2(aq)− predominates at low pH and high Cltotal conditions. Results from thermodynamic modeling also suggest Pd is mobilized in significant contributions by both PdCl2(aq) and PdCl3(aq)− with the latter gaining predominance in response to increasing Cltotal. Calculated fluid/melt partition coefficients for Au and Pd in low-density, magmatic vapors at 1000 °C and 200 MPa suggest that Pd may experience fractionation from Au in porphyry Au-Cu (±Pd, Pt) systems due to the restricted compatibility of Pd in the fluid phase (requiring strongly acidic and substantially high ƒO2 conditions). Moreover, high-density, concentrated aqueous brines facilitate the compatibility of Pd in the fluid phase which may be important with respect to the formation of platinum-group element (PGE)-enriched horizons in layered mafic intrusions (e.g., J-M Reef, Stillwater Complex, U.S.A.). The potential for magmatic, near-neutral pH, high-salinity brines to dissolve significant amounts of Pd as Pd(II)-chloride complexes (∼400 to ∼900 µg/g) well below the NNO buffer suggests that such fluids may be responsible for late-stage hydrothermal remobilization of Pd within mafic-ultramafic igneous environments (e.g., Cu-Ni-PGE footwall deposits and low-sulfide PGE deposits in the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Canada).

Strontium isotope analysis reveals prehistoric mobility patterns in the southeastern Baltic area

Year: 2022
Products: NWR193;Electro Scientific Industries;
Authors: Piličiauskas, G;Simčenka, E;Lidén, K;Kozakaitė, J;Miliauskienė, Ž;Piličiauskienė, G;Kooijman, E;Šinkūnas, P;Robson, H;
Journal: Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences

We measured 87Sr/86Sr for all available human remains (_n_ = 40) dating from the Mesolithic to the Bronze Age (ca. 6400-800 cal BC) in Lithuania. In addition, local baselines of archaeological fauna from the same area were constructed. We identified significant and systematic offsets between 87Sr/86Sr values of modern soils and animals and archaeological animals due to currently unknown reasons. By comparing 87Sr/86Sr human intra-tooth variation with the local baselines, we identified 13 non-local individuals, accounting for 25-50% of the analysed population. We found no differences in the frequency of local vs. nonlocals between male and female hunter-gatherers. Six Mesolithic-Subneolithic individuals with 87Sr/86Sr values > 0.7200 may have come from southern Finland and/or Karelia. Two Mesolithic-Subneolithic individuals from the Donkalnis cemetery with 87Sr/86Sr values 

A window into an older orogenic cycle: P-T conditions and timing of the pre‐Alpine history of the Dora‐Maira Massif (Western Alps)

Year: 2022
Products: NWR193UC;ESI;
Authors: Nosenzo, F;Manzotti, P;Poujol, M;Ballèvre, M;Langlade, J;
Journal: Journal of Metamorphic Geology

Compositional profile of pre-Alpine garnet from garnet-staurolite micaschist (GM1) for major (a) and trace elements (b-d). (b) Compositional profile of Y and sum of HREE and MREE. (c) Compositional profile of Zr and Hf. (d) Compositional profile of P. (e) Chondrite-normalized REE pattern (McDonough & Sun, 1995) for pre-Alpine garnet in sample GM1. (f) Compositional profile of polycyclic garnet from garnet micaschist (GM13) (colour coding as in (a)). Vertical orange lines mark the boundaries between the first and second garnet generations. The position of the profiles (a) and (f) is indicated in Figure 6d and Figure 8e, respectively (lines A-B) [Color figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com [http://wileyonlinelibrary.com]] A _HP_ mineral assemblage consisting of high-Si muscovite, paragonite, chloritoid, glaucophane (never preserved but pseudomorphed), and rutile developed during the Alpine cycle (Alpine stage 1, Figure 5b). High-Si muscovite (Si = 3.37-3.50 a.p.f.u., XNa = 0.01-0.07) overgrows concentrically pre-Alpine muscovite (Figure S2) or forms new crystals. The latter display numerous tiny rutile crystals and may be derived from pre-Alpine biotite. Paragonite (XNa = 0.92) and chloritoid (~300 μm in size) are postkinematic with respect to the pre-Alpine foliation. Sample GM1 does not display a second generation of garnet. By contrast, tiny (50 to 100 μm in size) idioblastic garnet crystals have been observed in sample GM2 collected in the same area. Chloritoid shows chemical zoning, with increasing Fe content from the core (XFe = 0.70-0.71) to rim (XFe = 0.73-0.79). Fine-grained elongated or lozenge-shaped aggregates of chlorite are interpreted as pseudomorphs after sodic amphiboles, as reported in other Alpine units with similar metamorphic evolution (Compagnoni, 1977; Manzotti et al., 2021). Rutile occurs in the matrix as tiny needles and as large crystals (maximum 100 μm in length). During a second Alpine stage (Alpine stage 2; Figure 5b) chlorite statically grows in the matrix and replaces garnet whereas ilmenite forms coronas around rutile. Paragonite, rare albite, and epidote also grow during this stage.

Rutile to titanite transformation in eclogites and its geochemical consequences: An example from the Sumdo eclogite, Tibet

Year: 2022
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Authors: ZHAO, L;ZENG, L;GAO, L;HU, M;SUN, D;ZHANG, L;
Journal: Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition

Titanite corona formed after rutile is common in retrograde high- to ultrahigh-pressure meta-mafic rocks, which provides a good opportunity to address the geochemical behavior of HFSE in crustal environments. In the Sumdo eclogite, titanite occurs either as corona around rutile grains or as semi-continuous veins crosscutting the major foliation, whereas rutile grains occur either as inclusions in garnet or omphacite or as relict core surrounded by titanite. Texture relationships and the trace elements characteristics of rutile and titanite with different occurrence indicated that both minerals preferred incorporate Nb and Hf over Ta and Zr in the aqueous fluid. Moreover, the breakdown of omphacite and epidote could release substantial amounts of aqueous fluids enriched in Ca, Si, Fe and REE, which reacts with rutile to form titanite corona and vein. During this process, water-insoluble elements, like HFSE and HREE, behave like mobile elements, but they do not migrate substantially out of the system, instead, they tend to react in situ. This might imply that the aqueous fluids released during the retrograde metamorphic reactions in mafic rocks could not substantially transfer fluid-immobile elements into the overlying mantle wedge in subduction environments.

Geochronology and Geochemistry of the Granite Xenolith within the Lamprophyre at the Zhenyuan Gold Deposit (Yunnan Province, SW China)

Year: 2022
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Authors: ZHANG, H;ZHANG, H;HOU, Z;CHAI, P;ZHOU, K;
Journal: Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition

The xenoliths in host rocks of hydrothermal gold deposits can generally provide much geochemical information of the deep rocks, which may have an implication for the sources of ore-forming materials. Geochronology and geochemical characteristics are reported for a granite xenolith, which is enclosed by the lamprophyre in the Zhenyuan gold deposit (Yunnan Province, SW China). This granite xenolith mainly consists of K-feldspar, quartz, and plagioclase with trace amounts of magnetite, titanite, apatite, zircon, and sulfides. Zircons from the granite xenolith yield a weighted average U-Pb age of 281.1 ± 1.3 Ma (MSWD = 2.1), which could represent the crystallization age of this granite xenolith. The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer and the Mn concentration in apatite calculate that this granite xenolith formed at 685 ± 43°C with the lgfO2 values ranging from NNO + 3.7 to NNO + 6.4. The zircons in the granite xenolith have a restricted range of positive εHf(t) values ranging from +9.4 to +10.8, and the corresponding Hf TDM2 model ages range from 588 to 678 Ma. The zircon U-Pb age and the Hf isotopic compositions indicate this granite xenolith within the Lamprophyre is mainly derived from partial melting of juvenile crustal rocks before the completed closure of the Ailaoshan Ocean. The pyrites in the granite xenolith have higher Bi concentrations, and lower As, Sb, and Tl concentrations than the gold-bearing pyrites of the ores in the Zhenyuan gold deposit. The low Au concentrations of the pyrites together with the ore-forming age of the Zhenyuan gold deposit (Oligocene) indicate the granite xenolith may have limited contribution to the gold mineralization of the Zhenyuan gold deposit.

Quantitative imaging of trace elements in brain sections of Alzheimer’s disease mice with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

Year: 2022
Products: NWRimage;
Authors: Liu, J;Zheng, L;Wei, X;Wang, B;Chen, H;Chen, M;Wang, M;Feng, W;Wang, J;
Journal: Microchemical Journal

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has become a powerful technique for imaging of trace elements in biological samples. However, accurately quantitative imaging is still a complicated task due to lack of matrix-matched standard materials. On the other hand, traditional LA-ICP-MS analysis usually suffers from slow analytical speed and low imaging resolution mainly due to a long washout time of an ablation cell and a low repetition rate of a laser. In this work, a series of homemade matrix-matched standards were produced by homogeneous spiking of gelatin with a known amount of trace elements (Fe, Cu, and Zn). Using these standards, quantitative imaging of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control mice were achieved using a laser ablation system with a low-dispersion cell and a high repetition rate laser coupled to a triple quadrupole ICP-MS. The limits of detection of Fe, Cu, and Zn are 5.4 μg g−1, 0.081 μg g−1, and 0.54 μg g−1, respectively. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, and Zn in mouse brains are 10 ∼ 70 μg g−1, 5 ∼ 30 μg g−1, and 25 ∼ 150 μg g−1, respectively. The quantitative imaging shows different distribution and contents of these metals between AD and control mouse brains. The developed LA-ICP-MS approach is expected to provide a new insight into biological effects of metals and aetiology of metal-related diseases.

Initiation and Development of the Late Cenozoic Uplift of Daluo Mts, Northeastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau

Year: 2022
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Authors: KOU, L;DONG, X;LI, Z;CUI, J;MA, Z;Li, H;
Journal: Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition

Daluo Mts lies at the leading edge of the arcuate tectonic belt at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, and is the landform boundary zone between the active Tibetan Plateau and the stable North China Craton. Understanding the late Cenozoic uplift of Daluo Mts is important for discussing the expansion of the arcuate tectonic belt of the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its influence on the western North China Craton. In this study, the late Cenozoic uplift of Daluo Mts is reconstructed from the development of the late Cenozoic alluvial fan around Daluo Mts. The entire sedimentary sequence and framework of the fan was reconstructed on the basis of the newly obtained drilling data. The initial timing of the late Cenozoic uplift of Daluo Mts and the key stages of uplift during the Pleistocene were reconstructed using cosmogenic nuclide, optically stimulated luminescence, and detrital zircon U-Pb dating analyses. The late Cenozoic alluvial fan at the front of Daluo Mts overlies a set of fluvial-facies strata; therefore, the commencement of alluvial-fan development marks the start of the late Cenozoic uplift of Daluo Mts. The timing of this event can be constrained to ∼4.64 Ma. Two extensive gravel layers (dated to ∼0.76-0.6 Ma and ∼0.05 Ma) developed during the Pleistocene, indicating two episodes of considerable uplift. This study provides a new time scale for the uplift and expansion of the arcuate tectonic belt at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau.

Timing constraints on alkaline magmatic activity and implications for lithospheric thinning beneath the North China Craton: evidence from zircon geochronology of syenite from the Huyanshan complex in the Lyuliangshan uplift belt, Shanxi Province

Year: 2022
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Authors: Liu, Y;Zou, G;Zhou, R;Liu, D;
Journal: Arabian Journal of Geosciences

The Huyanshan alkaline complex is distributed in the Huyanshan area of Jiaocheng County, Shanxi province, China. The syenite, representing the last stage of episodic magmatism in the central North China Craton (NCC), can be used to refine the age of this alkaline complex. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating was conducted on the syenite and three populations of zircons with three different ages were obtained: ~ 127 Ma, ~ 1.8 Ga, and ~ 1.92 Ga. The last intrusive syenite yields a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 127.5 ± 3.4 Ma (_n_ = 3, MSWD = 0.44), implying an Early Cretaceous age, which corresponds to the peak time of magmatic activity and lithospheric thinning in the NCC. The syenite formed in an intraplate extensional setting probably associated with the retreat of the subducting Paleo-Pacific plate. The zircons with an age of ~ 1.92 Ga are the products of important tectono-magmatic and thermal events in the Precambrian, corresponding to the collision between the Yinshan and Ordos Blocks to form the Western Block of the NCC. The age of ~ 1.8 Ga records continental rift-related magmatic events under an extensional regime after the suture of the Western Block and the Eastern Block to form the coherent basement of the NCC.

Anatexis of metadiorite from the Yaoundé area, Central African Orogenic Belt in Cameroon: implications on the genesis of in-source granodiorite leucosomes

Year: 2022
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Authors: Metang, V;Nomo Negue, E;Ganno, S;Takodjou Wambo, J;Teme, M;Teda Soh, A;Fossi, D;Mbakam Nkamga, M;Tchameni, R;Nkoumbou, C;Nzenti, J;
Journal: Arabian Journal of Geosciences

This paper presents integrated whole-rock geochemistry, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology, and zircon and monazite thermometry of the Yaounde in-source granodiorite leucosomes in order to better constrain the crustal growth of the Yaoundé segment of the Central African Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Yaoundé area is dominantly made up of extensively melted metadiorites hosting partially digested enclaves of metasediments and in-source granodiorite leucosomes. Field investigations have revealed that the regional structure is dominated by the shallow-dipping to occasionally subvertical _S__n_ foliation characterized by variable trending resulting to the transposition of the locally E-W trending _S__n_-1 foliation in metadiorite. New LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology indicates partial melting age crystallization at 595 ± 4 Ma for the in-source granodiorite leucosomes. This in the Yaoundé area is coeval with and emplacement of some syntectonic granitoids of the CAOB. Metadiorites are high-K calc-alkaline while granodiorite leucosomes are medium-K calc-alkaline and both rocks are magnesian, display LREE enrichment, and LILE depletion as well as strong depletion in Nb-Ta, Sr, P, and Ti. The protholith of the Yaoundé metadiorites derived from partial melting of mixed source involving a metasomatized mantle with the contribution of crustal materials. In-source granodiorite leucosomes derived from the partial melting of metadiorites during a period of intense migmatization in the Yaoundé group. The average _T__Zr__ T__Ti-in-zr_ and _T_REE (ca. 794 °C, 767 °C, 821 °C, respectively) estimates of the melts are similar to estimated temperatures (ca. 750-800 °C) for the host metadiorites, suggesting that the melting took place in the deep crustal level as inferred by estimated pressure of 9-13 kbar.

Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon age of the Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks from the Bidou I, Nyong Series, Cameroon: Implications for provenance and tectonic setting

Year: 2022
Products: NWR193;ESI;
Authors: Woguia, B;Nono, G;Tsoungui, P;Njiosseu, E;Kenne, P;Nzenti, J;
Journal: Arabian Journal of Geosciences

The Bidou I polymetallic prospect, located in the Nyong series, belongs to the northwestern edge of the Congo craton and consists of metasedimentary rocks. Combination of geochemistry with U-Pb zircon dating of these metamorphic formations was used to constrain the source and the tectonic setting of their protolith. Samples are highly enriched in SiO2 (54.4-88.06%) and Al2O3 (5.81-19.66%), depleted in CaO with a very high K2O/Na2O ratio > 1, which are characteristics of metasedimentary rocks. The studied samples are garnet gneisses and garnet micaschists having arkoses and greywackes as inferred protoliths, respectively. The felsic/intermediate nature of those protoliths is related to intracrustal differentiation of sedimentary recycling, marked by the accumulation of zircon. The metasediments undergone weak chemical alteration, range from immature to slightly mature and were derived from a moderately altered sedimentary source in an active tectonic setting. The protoliths of the Bidou I metasedimentary rocks are from the upper continental crust and were deposited in an active or passive continental margin. The duality of the tectonic setting highlights the progressive change in the geometry of the basin and the development of a continental island arc. U-Pb zircon dating yields ages of 2065 ± 25 Ma for garnet gneisses and 2405 ± 24 Ma for garnet micaschists. These new ages are consistent with the data presented by previous works at the NW border of the Congo craton in Cameroon.

Neoarchean arc magmatism and Paleoproterozoic high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the southern Motloutse Complex, eastern Botswana: Implications for the western extension of the Limpopo Complex

Year: 2022
Products: NWR213;ESI;
Authors: Basupi, T;Tsunogae, T;Takahashi, K;Tsutsumi, Y;
Journal: Precambrian Research

We provide the first record of the occurrence of high-pressure garnet-bearing amphibolite and mafic granulite hosted by amphibolites from the Maope area of the southern Motloutse Complex in eastern Botswana. The mineral assemblages of the rocks are garnet + edenite + plagioclase + ilmenite + rutile + quartz (garnet-bearing amphibolite), magnesio-hornblende + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz (mafic granulite), and magnesio-hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite + epidote + titanite (host amphibolite). The poikiloblastic garnet in the garnet-bearing amphibolite contains inclusions of edenite, ilmenite, quartz, and plagioclase as prograde minerals, while it is mantled by ferro-edenite + plagioclase coronae formed during retrograde metamorphism. The geochemical signatures of the mafic granulite and amphibolite, combined with the enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements and depletion of high-field strength elements (Nb and Ta), indicate subduction-related volcanic arc affinity, whereas the garnet-bearing amphibolite indicates subduction-related volcanic arc or within-plate basalt affinity. The peak metamorphic condition of the garnet-bearing amphibolite was constrained as 850-910 °C and 10.0-10.5 kbar based on phase equilibrium modeling in the Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2-Fe2O3 (NCFMASHTO) system and geothermobarometry. Slightly lower conditions were obtained from the mafic granulite (745-825 °C) and amphibolite (610-750 °C). Zircon grains from the garnet-bearing amphibolite with lower Th/U ratios of 0.02-0.23 yielded a weighted-mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2020.2 ± 4.9 Ma as the timing of high-grade metamorphism. In contrast, oscillatory-zoned zircons from the mafic granulite with higher Th/U ratios of 0.44-0.86 recorded a magmatic age of 2648.8 ± 9.8 Ma. As the age is consistent with previously reported age of a tonalite gneiss (2645 Ma) from the same region, we infer bimodal arc magmatism during Neoarchean. The results of this study indicate that the southern Motloutse Complex underwent high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism with post-peak decompression along a single clockwise P-T evolution during Paleoproterozoic Era (∼2.02 Ga). Our integrated petrological and geochronological studies suggest that the southern Motloutse Complex is nearly equivalent to the Beit Bridge Complex as a possible western extension of a collisional suture (the Central Zone of the Limpopo Complex) between the Archean Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons. The occurrence of ca. 2.0 Ga high-pressure granulite-facies rocks from the southern Motloutse Complex might suggest multiple collisions of discrete crustal units during Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic.

Zircon U-Pb dating and geological significance of the Dzhalinda intrusion in the Kirovskoe gold deposit, Russia

Year: 2022
Products: NewWave;
Authors: Li, B;Yang, Y;Wang, J;
Journal: Arabian Journal of Geosciences

The Dzhalinda intrusion is closely related to the mineralization of the Kirov gold deposit in the Far East of Russia. Based on the characterization of the petrology, geochemistry, and zircon U-Pb chronology of the Dzhalinda intrusion, this paper investigates the age, geochemical characteristics, and tectonic setting of the intrusion. The main rock is granodiorite. Petrological and geochemical analysis results show that the rocks have quartz (20%), potash feldspar (15%), plagioclase (60%), and biotite (3%), and belong to the calc-alkaline series. Trace element and rare earth element (REE) abundances suggest that the magma may primarily have originated from above the oceanic crust subduction of oceanic lithosphere mantle partial melting, wedge, and contamination by crustal material. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Dzhalinda intrusion was formed in the Early Cretaceous, 125.44 ± 0.69 Ma. Combined with regional data, the Dzhalinda intrusion is considered to be formed by the subduction of the ancient Pacific plate with the Eurasische plate. Mineralization of the Kirovskoe gold deposit was the filling of the hydrothermal fluid along the NNE- and NW-trending faults following the magmatic period of the Dzhalinda intrusion.

Mesoarchean trondhjemitic continental nucleus and pre-plate tectonic crustal-mantle interactions of the Western Shandong Complex, North China Craton

Year: 2022
Products: NewWave;
Authors: Yu, Y;Li, D;Chen, Y;Sun, J;Geng, J;Yang, F;Han, Y;
Journal: Precambrian Research

Plate tectonics play an important role in crustal-mantle interactions since late Archean, yet detailed processes of pre-plate tectonic crustal-mantle interactions remain enigmatic. In the Western Shandong Complex of the North China Craton, magmatic rocks recorded successive tectonic transition processes from vertical (plume) to lateral (subduction) during the early Neoarchean. These magmatic records, together with our newly discovered a pre-Neoarchean continental nucleus in the Western Shandong Complex, documented key information on pre-plate tectonic crustal-mantle interactions. In this study, petrology, whole-rock geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic data, and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes are reported for Neoarchean supracrustal and intrusive rocks for the Western Shandong Complex. Early Neoarchean komatiitic basalts and ultramafic rocks (∼2.77 Ga) were plume-related and generated by crustal contamination of fractional crystallized komatiitic magma. A series of Mesoarchean (∼3.0-2.8 Ga) xenocrystic zircon grains were discovered in the Late Neoarchean charnockites (∼2.56-2.52 Ga), indicating contributions of continental crustal material earlier than regional oldest magmatic records. Based on our new geochronological and geochemical data, a trondhjemitic Mesoarchean (∼3.1-2.8 Ga) continental nucleus was identified and reported for the first time in the Western Shandong Complex. During the early stage of the early Neoarchean, this continental nucleus dismembered during the bottom-up plume processes and the correlated plume-continental nucleus interactions occurred and ubiquitously documented in regional Neoarchean magmatic rocks with different degrees. The plume-continental nucleus interactions consequently resulted in the opening of an oceanic basin and different continental evolutionary processes during the subsequent lateral subduction in the early Neoarchean. The buoyant oceanic plateau was possibly dragged to the trench and blocked subsequent subduction and led to a ∼40 Myr magmatic hiatus between 2.60 Ga and 2.56 Ga.

Gemological Characterization of Peridot from Pyaung-Gaung in Mogok, Myanmar

Year: 2022
Products: NWR213;
Authors: Seneewong-Na-Ayutthaya, M;Chongraktrakul, W;Sripoonjan, T;
Journal: Gems & Gemology

Figure 3. A: Mountains in the Pyaung-Gaung area. B: A mining site at the primary deposit in Pyaung-Gaung. C: A pit dug into the peridot-rich area of the peridotitic host rock. D: Serpentinized fine-grained dunite, the precursor host rock of gem-quality peridot, was abundant around the mine. Photos by T. Sripoonjan. The Pyaung-Gaung peridot mining area is located approximately 10 km north-northwest of the town of Mogok (again, see figure 2) and situated on a ridge along Taung Me Mountain, the highest mountain in the Mogok metamorphic complex, underlain by large granitic intrusives of biotite microgranite (Kabaing) (Iyer, 1953; Harlow and Thu, 2014; Sripoonjan et al., 2017). Kyaw Thu (2007) suggested that the Kabaing granite intruded into the peridotite at Pyaung-Gaung, indicating the possible emplacement of ultramafic rocks during the early Jurassic and generally earlier than the Mogok Metamorphic Belt. However, peridot from Pyaung-Gaung is derived from ultramafic rocks that occurred as a layered intrusion in the associated garnet-biotite gneiss (Kabe). The area has been mined mainly for fine-quality peridot in the outcrops of precursor dunite, an olivine-dominant variety of peridotite, as this rock was commonly present around the mine area. Nevertheless, well-formed crystals are usually found in veinlets and pockets within fine-grained serpentinized peridotites (Kyaw Thu, 2007), partly due to recrystallization of olivine in tension gashes or tectonic fractures during lateral displacement and uplift along the Momeik fault (Lin, 2014; Bouilhol et al., 2015; Thu and Harlow, 2017) (figure 3). [Mining at the Pyaung-Gaung peridot deposit]

Episodic metamorphism and anatexis within the Khondakite Belt, North China Craton: Constraint from Late-Paleoproterozoic fluid-fluxed melting of the Daqingshan Complex

Year: 2022
Products: UP213;New Wave;
Authors: Jiang, X;Yu, S;Liu, Y;Li, S;Lv, P;Peng, Y;Gao, X;Ji, W;Li, C;Xie, W;
Journal: Precambrian Research

The metamorphism and anatexis of the Khondalite Belt may provide key information for the Late-Paleoproterozoic collisional orogeny of the North China Craton (NCC). Migmatites formed by anatexis are widely developed in the Daqingshan Complex, central Khondakite Belt. However, the timing and anatectic regime of these migmatites have not been constrained. In this paper, we present systematic petrographic, whole-rock geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic investigation of the Baibuziwan stromatic migmatite and different types of leucosome in the northwestern Daqingshan Complex. The results show that: (1) the metamorphic rocks in Baibuziwan underwent in-situ to in-source partial melting, and the anatectic melts migrated and gathered in different degrees; (2) the ∼2.37 Ga Bt-Hbl-Pl gneiss in the Daqingshan Complex is possible protolith of the Baibuziwan migmatites; (3) the Baibuziwan migmatites have experienced three stages of metamorphism and anatexis in the Late-Paleoproterozoic, i.e., ∼1.95 Ga, ∼1.90 Ga, ∼1.85 Ga; (4) the anatectic regime of the Baibuziwan migmatites is fluid-fluxed melting, which has been proposed for the first time in Daqingshan Complex. Combined with previous studies, we suggest that following the collisional orogeny, the thinned lithosphere of the Khondalite Belt may have experienced asthenospheric upwelling. The lower crust of the Daqingshan complex was heated and dehydrated repeatedly, and the generated fluid poured into the overlying crust, which eventually led to the episodic metamorphism and fluid-fluxed melting in the Baibuziwan area.

Magma hybridization and crystallization in coexisting gabbroic and granitic bodies in the mid-crust, Akechi district, central Japan

Year: 2022
Products: NWR213;New Wave;New Wave Research;
Authors: Yamasaki, T;
Journal: Mineralogy and Petrology

Petrological and geochemical features of gabbros and fine-grained mafic rocks (mafic microgranular enclaves; MMEs) in the Inagawa Granite of the Ryoke Plutonic Complex were investigated to assess the interactions between coexisting mafic and silicic magmas, and the petrogenetic relationships between the MMEs and surrounding gabbros. The MMEs exhibit mingling textures that imply the coexistence of mafic and silicic magmas that did not undergo complete mixing, but the geochemical compositions of the MMEs require substantial hybridization and homogenization. The gabbroic rocks exhibit disequilibrium textures and mineral compositions, such as quartz-hornblende ocellar textures and patchy plagioclase crystals with bimodal anorthite contents. These textures and compositions record an abrupt decrease in crystallization temperature and mechanical mixing between crystallizing gabbroic mush and silicic (granitic) melt. Geochemical variations of the gabbroic rocks can be explained by hybridization and fractional crystallization (HFC) processes between crystallizing gabbroic mush and granitic melt. Extrapolation of the mixing trend to a basaltic composition suggests that the primitive mafic end-member was a low-K basaltic magma. Given that HFC yields magnesian andesite by the addition of a small amount of silicic melt to a primitive mafic end-member, the compositional modification of mafic magmas by magma mixing might be an essential process in the formation of andesitic magma in arc crust.

Zircon xenocryst Hf-O isotopic compositions in the Qiyugou Au orefield: A record of Paleoproterozoic oceanic slab subduction in the Trans-North China Orogen

Year: 2022
Products: UP213;NewWave;
Authors: Wang, P;Mao, J;Ye, H;Zhao, G;He, S;Yan, J;Wu, S;Wan, L;Zhao, X;
Journal: Precambrian Research

The Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) is suggested to form under a transition from subduction to collision from 2500 Ma to ∼ 1850 Ma, and the Taihua TTG gneiss in the Xiong’ershan district is thought to have formed in an Andean-type continental arc setting or island arc setting during this geological event. However, to date, the geochemical record of the subducted oceanic slab is still lacking. This study focuses on Hf-O isotopic analyses of zircon xenocrysts from the Qi189 hornblende monzogranite, Qiyugou Au orefield, TNCO. The results reveal that zircon xenocrysts with ages from 2304 Ma to 1934 Ma generally have low-δ18O values from 2.66‰ to 3.83‰ and high-εHf(t) values from 2.7 to 7.8. These zircon grains were generated from remelting of high-temperature altered gabbroic rocks of the subducted oceanic slab during the transition from compression to extension. In this paper, we present new evidence for Paleoproterozoic oceanic slab subduction in the TNCO.

Analytical characterisation of the granitic rocks used in the vomitoria of the Roman amphitheatre in Emerita Augusta

Year: 2022
Products: NWR213;ESI;
Authors: Mota-López, M;Fort, R;Álvarez de Buergo, M;Pizzo, A;
Journal: Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali

This work deals to determine the physical and the mechanical properties of the granitic rocks used in the Roman amphitheatre in Emerita Augusta. For this purpose, petrographic, geochemical and physical and mechanical analyses were used. The sampling in the amphitheatre was carried out taking into account granitic rocks that have not been replaced during its numerous restoration works. Mineralogical, textural, geochemical, physical and mechanical properties of the granitic rocks were obtained trying to obtain the relationships between them and showing that porosity influences in their mechanical properties. The petrographic characterisation and the geochemical signature of the samples allowed us identifying the granite types used in the monument as well as the acceptable conservation state of it.

Neoarchean reworking of Mesoarchean and Paleoarchean crust (3.4 ∼ 3.0 Ga) within the North China Craton: Constraints from zircon U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotopes from the basement of the Bohai Bay Basin

Year: 2022
Products: NWR193;ESI;
Authors: Meng, F;Tian, Y;Kerr, A;Wang, Q;Chen, Y;Zhou, Y;Yang, F;
Journal: Precambrian Research

The Bohai Bay Basin basement is mainly composed of Archean granitoid gneisses with minor supracrustal rocks and is the largest basin in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton. Due to a cover of Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata, little is known about the age and crustal evolution of this basement. In this study we report new zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data for drill core samples, including TTGs (granodiorite, tonalite gneiss, trondhjemite gneiss), granites (monzogranite, syenogranite) and a leptite, with the aim of revealing the Archean crustal evolutionary history of the Bohai Bay Basin basement. The U-Pb age of magmatic zircons from these granitoids reveals that basement rocks were mainly generated by two-stage events at ∼3.1 Ga and ∼2.5 Ga. The εHf(t) values of ∼3.1 Ga magmatic zircons vary from +0.56 to +8.27, and their corresponding single-stage model ages range from 3.3 Ga to 3.0 Ga. The εHf(t) values of ∼2.5 Ga magmatic zircons range from −12.87 to −0.07, their corresponding two-stage model ages range from 3.8 Ga to 2.9 Ga with most ages from 3.4 Ga to 3.0 Ga. The Hf isotopic characteristics show that the crustal growth of basement beneath Bohai Bay Basin occurred mainly between 3.4 Ga and 3.0 Ga, different from crustal accretion ages of 2.9-2.7 Ga on the periphery of the Bohai Bay Basin. However, both areas were reworked by the ∼2.5 Ga tectono-thermal event. Integration of this new data from the basin basement with previous data, indicates that the Eastern Block of the North China Craton may be controlled by a mantle plume during the ∼2.5 Ga period. The results from this study are significant in assessing the tectonic environment of the eastern basement in the North China Craton.

Population Structure and Regional Connectivity of Young Snowy Grouper in the Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic Ocean

Year: 2022
Products: NWR193UC;NWR213;New Wave;New Wave Research;
Authors: Sanchez, P;Zapp Sluis, M;Pinsky, J;Miller, N;Rooker, J;
Journal: Marine and Coastal Fisheries

Snowy Grouper Hyporthodus niveatus are long-lived, slow-growing demersal fish that occur throughout most of the western Atlantic Ocean. Currently, Snowy Grouper in U.S. territorial waters are managed as two stocks, one along the eastern Atlantic coast and one in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), though population connectivity throughout the region is unknown. The population structure of juvenile Snowy Grouper in U.S. territorial waters was assessed with otolith chemistry analysis, both trace element (7Li, 24Mg, 55Mn, 88Sr, and 137Ba) and stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O), from three life stages (core [first-year deposition], edge [most recent deposition], and life [mean of lifetime deposition]) across four geographic regions (northwest GoM, northeast GoM, southeast GoM, and U.S. East Coast). Dissimilar element : Ca signatures were evident across regions for all three life history stages, with regional patterns in individual markers following expected differences in environmental chemistry based on the geographic location of dominant mesoscale features (Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, Loop Current, and Gulf Stream) and associated physicochemical conditions. Moderate classification success of Snowy Grouper to collection region with lifetime signatures indicated that the population along the U.S. East Coast experienced different physicochemical conditions than individuals inhabiting the GoM. The close adherence in regional patterns of otolith chemistry with expected environmental chemistry indicates that movement of individuals is limited and population connectivity constrained in U.S. territorial waters.

Iron oxide inclusions and exsolution textures of rainbow lattice sunstone

Year: 2022
Products: NWR213;
Authors: Jin, S;Sun, Z;Palke, A;
Journal: European Journal of Mineralogy

. Iron oxide inclusions and exsolution lamellae in rainbow lattice sunstone (RLS) from Harts Range, Australia, are examined using optical and electron microscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD). Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) analyses show a bulk composition of An1.4Ab14.8Or83.0Cn0.8 with < 200 ppmw (parts per million weight) of Fe. Two stages of exsolution can be identified in RLS from the bimodal distribution in the size and shape of the exsolution lamellae. Micron-scaled Albite-twinned oligoclase spindles (An27Ab72Or1) first exsolved at ∼ 650 ∘C were followed by nanoscaled Pericline-twinned albite films (∼ Ab100) below 500 ∘C that create adularescence. The albite films inherited and preserved the monoclinic tetrahedral framework of the orthoclase matrix (An0.3Ab11.5Or87.3Cn0.9) as further ordering was completely inhibited by coherent-interface strain after exsolution. All the exsolution lamellae are pristine and strain-controlled with no signs of any deuteric or hydrothermal alteration, indicating the iron in the magnetite inclusions was not introduced by an external fluid. The magnetite inclusions nucleated around the same time as the exsolution of oligoclase spindles likely due to the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the feldspar lattice. Magnetite films following the specific crystallographic orientation relationship (COR) of {111}Mt∥{100}Or and 11‾0Mt∥001Or grew to extraordinarily large sizes due to the near perfect lattice match at the interface with the orthoclase host. Some thinner magnetite films were oxidized into hematite during weathering of the host rock. RLS reveals a new mechanism for the formation of the flaky hematite inclusions in feldspars, which may explain the enigmatic origin of aventurescence observed in many other sunstones and red-clouded feldspars.

U-Pb dating of detrital zircon from Permian successions of the South Kitakami Belt, Northeast Japan: Clues to the paleogeography of the belt

Year: 2022
Products: NWR213;
Authors: Li, Y;Takeuchi, M;
Journal: Island Arc

The South Kitakami Belt in the northeast Japan is unique in presence of a thick Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The Permian sedimentary succession in the Maiya area of this belt is divided into the Nishikori, Tenjinnoki, and Toyoma formations, in ascending stratigraphic order. The Tenjinnoki Formation includes the Yamazaki Conglomerate Member containing granitic clasts. We performed U-Pb dating for detrital zircon of one sample of tuffaceous sandstone from the Nishikori Formation, six samples of sandstone from the Tenjinnoki and Toyoma formations, and five granitic clasts from the Yamazaki Conglomerate using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Our dating results show that the tuffaceous sandstone sample has two age peaks at 287 and 301 Ma for the Nishikori Formation, three age peaks at 320-300, 290, and 270 Ma for the Tenjinnoki and Toyoma Formation, and ages of 311, 300, and 270 Ma from granitic clasts of the Yamazaki Conglomerate. In addition, older ages of 452-435 and 380 Ma were obtained from some zircon grains of the sandstone and granitic clasts. Our results suggest igneous activity in these periods. The South Kitakami Belt's origin with respect to continental blocks has been discussed in regard of the margin of North China Block or South China Block. Based on the stratigraphic ages and timing of igneous activity, we conclude that during the Permian the South Kitakami Belt was located at the margin of the South Central Asian Orogenic Belt, near the Solonker-Xra Moron-Changchun suture and the North China Block in East Asia.

Late Miocene magmatic‐hydrothermal system and related Cu mineralization of the Arakawa area, Akita, Japan

Year: 2022
Products: New Wave;New Wave Research;
Authors: Satori, S;Watanabe, Y;Ogata, T;Hayasaka, Y;
Journal: Resource Geology

The Northeast Japan arc hosts a number of hydrothermal vein-type copper deposits associated with Neogene felsic intrusions. The Arakawa area is underlain by Cretaceous granites and Tertiary sedimentary rocks, which were intruded by the Miocene Ushizawamata dacite. Zircon grains from the dacite intrusion yield a 206Pb/238U intercept age (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) of 8.10 ± 0.30 Ma, consistent with a previously reported K-Ar illite age (8.1 ± 0.4 Ma) of the Ushizawamata lead and zinc prospect in the Arakawa area. The dacite intrusion and the surrounding Miocene sedimentary rocks were altered by hydrothermal activity on the surface, classified into four alteration zones: (1) biotite-chlorite, (2) illite, (3) chlorite and (4) smectite, centered on the intrusion. About 20 major vertical sub-parallel copper-bearing quartz veins occur in the chlorite alteration zone on the west side of the dacite. The first vein stage is composed of chalcopyrite and chamosite with a minor amount of quartz in brecciated wall rocks, and the second-stage is characterized by the presence of hematite in addition to the first-stage mineral assemblage. The third-stage consists of comb-shaped quartz veins with a minor amount of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and pyrite, and the fourth-stage of barite and apatite present in druse in the third-stage veins. Primary fluid inclusions in quartz of the first- and third-stages are all liquid-rich and two-phase. Homogenization temperature and salinity of first-stage quartz are 263-277°C and 5.7-7.5 wt% NaCl equivalent (eq.); in quartz of the third-stage, 251-270°C and 2.7-4.2 wt% in the inner zone and 207-250°C and 2.7-3.7 wt% in comb-shaped quartz on the vein margin. The fluid inclusions in quartz phenocrysts of the Ushizawamata dacite show two distinct assemblages, halite-bearing polyphase inclusions that coexist with vapor-phase inclusions and/or vapor-rich two-phase inclusions, and liquid-rich two-phase inclusions. Homogenization temperature and salinity of the polyphase inclusions are higher than 401°C and 46.7 wt%, respectively, and those of the vapor-rich two-phase inclusions report 393-419°C and 2.6-3.7 wt% NaCl, whereas the liquid-rich two-phase inclusions returned 344-403°C and 8.0-9.3 wt%, respectively. These results indicate that the ore forming fluid was slightly cooler and lower in salinity than the late-stage hydrothermal fluid in the Ushizawamata intrusion. The spatial and temporal proximity between the Ushizawamata dacite and the hydrothermal veins indicates that the dacitic magma was genetically related to the vein copper mineralization in the Arakawa area.

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